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MASUM is a human rights NGO based in Kolkata in the State of West Bengal, India. Its work includes documentation, reporting and advocacy on human rights violations committed by state security forces, especially the Border Security Force operating along the Indo-Bangladesh Border. MASUM has been consistent in its support for victims of violations, especially poorer communities in the bordering districts of West Bengal in their struggle for redress and accountability. As a result of their work, MASUM and its staff have suffered reprisals including persistent harassment, threats, false complaints, and even physical attack. The District Monitors and volunteers who work in bordering villages bear the brunt of such threats, many of whom are unable to return home or continue their work due to fear for their safety. Despite the challenges, MASUM remains committed to its peaceful activism and work in defense of human rights.


Human rights defenders in India face a diverse range of attacks and harassment from state and non-state actors alike, including killing, physical assault, arbitrary detention, threats and judicial harassment. Police officials are often the perpetrators of violence against HRDs, which is usually carried out with impunity.