On 24 December 2010, Dr Binayak Sen was sentenced to life imprisonment by Raipur Additional District and Sessions Court. Dr Binayak Sen is the General Secretary of the People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) regional office in the state of Chhattisgarh, as well as the Vice-President of the PUCL at a national level.
The PUCL, which was founded in 1976, is a non-governmental, non-political organisation dedicated to the defence of civil liberties and human rights. In recent decades, Dr Binayak Sen has been involved in training people living in rural villages with regard to community health and disease prevention.
In 2004, he was awarded the Paul Harrison Award by the Christian Medical College in Vellore. Dr Binayak Sen has also campaigned to raise awareness with regard to human rights violations committed by allegedly state-sponsored Salwa Judum militias.